There are currently no approved therapies to slow down the accumulation of neurological disability that occurs independently of relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS). International agencies are engaging to expedite the development of novel strategies capable of modifying disease progression, abrogating persistent CNS inflammation, and support degenerating axons in people with progressive MS. Understanding why regeneration fails in the progressive MS brain and developing new regenerative approaches is a key priority for the Pluchino Lab. In particular, we aim to elucidate how the immune system, in particular its cells called myeloid cells, affects brain structure and function under normal healthy conditions and in disease. Our objective is to find how myeloid cells communicate with the central nervous system and affect tissue healing and functional recovery by stimulating mechanisms of brain plasticity mechanisms such as the generation of new nerve cells and the reduction of scar formation. Applying combination of state-of-the-art omic technologies, and molecular approaches to study murine and human disease models of inflammation and neurodegeneration, we aim to develop experimental molecular medicines, including those with stem cells and gene therapy vectors, which slow down the accumulation of irreversible disabilities and improve functional recovery after progressive multiple sclerosis, stroke and traumatic injuries. By understanding the mechanisms of intercellular (neuro-immune) signalling, diseases of the brain and spinal cord may be treated more effectively, and significant neuroprotection may be achieved with new tailored molecular therapeutics.