After the collapse of the Soviet Union and Eastern European Socialist Camp in 1989, Samuel Huntington states in his book, "The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order," that history has entered a new phase---the clash of civilizations. He he predicts that future wars will be fought not between countries, but between cultures.
But does it have to be wars? Did war ever solve cultural and religious conflicts?
Despite 300 year of persecutions of Christians in the reigns of Nero, Diocletian, and Galerius, Christianity thrived and was legalized in the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great in 313 AD.
Despite four crusades and two centuries of attempting to recover the holy land and suppress paganism and heresy, the Catholic church was nowhere near its goals, but spurred the rise of the Islamic Ottoman Empire in the 14th century.
Despite the Roman destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish diaspora, despite antisemitism in Rome, Nazi Germany, and the Middle East, Judaism was not eliminated, Zionism was realized, and Israel was restored in 1948.
Perhaps, cultural and religious conflicts should be and can be resolved by peaceful means, by tolerance, and by love. Pearl S. Buck has demonstrated the confluence of a cultural conflict, the Jewish assimilation in Kaifeng, China in her novel Peony published in 1948. Through her writing, we see why and how the Jews assimilated into the Chinese culture as well as the Chinese race. The story may shed some light on settling the clash of civilizations.