After much more than three thousand years Jewish history has been far from static. Instead, our ancestors, our parents and even our contemporaries have had to respond to world realities beyond their control. There have been many points of transition, necessitating changes in all our modes of existence. From the destruction of the Temple to the Holocaust, the establishment of the State of Israel and beyond we have confronted the world and ensured that our tradition and people would survive and thrive. This class will examine many of these turning points, and the responses which have allowed the Jewish people and its traditions to continue to speak in the 21st century and beyond.