Microglia are implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, ranging from shaping neural circuits during early brain development, to surveying the brain parenchyma, and providing trophic support to neurons across the entire lifespan. In neurodegeneration, microglia have been considered for long time mere bystanders, accompanying and worsening neuronal damage. However, recent evidence indicates that microglia can causally contribute to neurodegenerative diseases, and that their dysfunction can even be at the origin of the pathology. In fact, the broad range of physiological roles microglia play in the healthy brain suggest that faulty microglia can initiate neurodegeneration through several possible mechanisms. In particular, in this seminar, we will discuss how dysfunctional microglia can affect synaptic function leading to pathological synapse loss, thus putting microglia center stage in the pathogenesis of brain disorders.