There will be a detailed discussion in this CE Course on the role that ribosome aberrations play in osteoarthritis. Specifically, the instructor will highlight ribosome aberrations that have been found from early-stage ribosome biogenesis, through ribosome build-up and maturation, up to preferential translation. The molecular mechanisms that account for cartilage degeneration and regeneration will be discussed with an emphasis on new findings from single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). After a brief review of major non-coding classes of RNA, the role of microRNAs and small non-coding RNAs will be discussed as molecular signatures for osteoarthritis. The role of microRNAs as therapeutics will be discussed with a detailed example of microRNA29a treatment for tendon injury in horses. New findings that highlight the role that cartilage ribosomal RNA (rRNA) post-translational modifications (PTMs) play in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis will be explained. Recent findings elucidating the role that the gut microbiome, a regulator of inflammation, plays in osteoarthritis, a disease with a major inflammatory component will be covered.
The last third of the CE Course will highlight the potential of novel therapies to address osteoarthritis in dogs and horses such as stem cells, microRNAs, and myostatin inhibitors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer promise due to their multipotency for differentiation into chondrocytes and their ability to modulate the immune system. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be able to heal and prevent tissue damage in osteoarthritis. A study that evaluated purified MSC-derived EVs in horses with osteoarthritis will be covered. Muscle wasting plays an important role in joint destabilization in canine and equine osteoarthritis. Exercise, microRNAs, gene therapy, and myostatin inhibitors can address muscle wasting in osteoarthritis.