The next decades will be characterised by increased turbulence and transformational change, in terms of physical climate impacts, but also in terms of the (EU) policies and institutions developed to address them. As expressed in its revamped climate Adaptation Strategy (Feb 2021), and a related Horizon Europe programme Mission, the Commission now recognises the critical importance of ‘transformation’ towards a ‘climate resilient’, as well as climate neutral, EU. But what are the implications for (EU) policies, political systems and institutions as currently configured? How might they need to evolve to underpin their legitimacy and navigate the demands of a more transformational future, and what obstacles might need to be overcome? Can climate resilience and climate neutrality be delivered simultaneously, or must there be trade-offs?