Dr. Daniele Manfredini, DDS, MSc, PhD, Dr Ortho
In 2013, consensus was obtained on a definition of bruxism as repetitive masticatory muscle activity characterized by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible, and specified as either sleep bruxism or awake bruxism. In addition, a grading system was proposed to determine the likelihood that a certain assessment of bruxism actually yields a
Recently, a need for an update and upgrade of such consensus emerged, with specific focus on the specification that: 1. sleep and awake bruxism are masticatory muscle activities that occur during sleep (characterized as rhythmic or non-rhythmic) and wakefulness (characterized by repetitive or sustained tooth contact and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible), respectively; 2. in otherwise healthy individuals, bruxism should not be considered as a disorder, but rather as a behavior that can be a risk (and/or protective) factor for certain clinical consequences; 3. both non-instrumental approaches (notably self-report) and instrumental approaches (notably electromyography) can be employed to assess bruxism; and 4. standard cutoff points for establishing the presence or absence of bruxism should not be used in otherwise
healthy individuals; rather, bruxism-related masticatory muscle activities should be assessed in the behavior’s continuum.
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